Removing all the dangerous bacteria from drinking water would have enormous health benefits for people around the world.
The technologies exist for doing that, but there’s a problem: cost.
Now MIT’s Rohit Karnik thinks he’s on to a much less expensive way to clean up water: Use the xylem of a plant.
Now if you remember your high school biology, you’ll know thatxylem is the stuff in plants that transports water in the form of sap from the roots to the leaves.
"And the way the water is moved is by evaporation from the leaves," says Karnik.
It’s somewhat like what happens when you put a straw into a glass of liquid. Evaporation from the leaves has the same effect as sucking on the straw.
Pulling water up to the leaves this way creates a problem for the plant, but also an opportunity for an inventor.
The plant’s problem is something called cavitation, or the growth of air bubbles, which makes it harder for water to reach the leaves. But Karnik says xylem has a way of getting rid of these bubbles.
"The xylem has membranes with pores and other mechanisms by which bubbles are prevented from easily spreading and flowing in the xylem tissue," he says.
And it turns out these same pores that are so good at filtering out air bubbles are just the right size for filtering out nasty bacteria.
Image: Making a xylem water filter is easy: Just peel back the bark and stick inside a tube.
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